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Detailed explanation of the production and disinfe (14th Feb 23 at 2:19am UTC)Quote Reply
Original title: Detailed explanation of the production and disinfection process of medical masks with pictures and texts, with guidelines for mask selection According to the statistics of the Development and Reform Commission on February 5, as of February 3, the output of masks in 22 key provinces in China had reached 14.8 million, an increase of 3.1% over the previous day, of which N95 mask had reached 116000, an increase of 48%, other medical masks had reached 9.98 million, an incr ease of 36%, and ordinary masks had reached 4.71 million. The production of masks showed a continuous upward trend. While sharing the good news with you, Mr. Process also brings you a detailed explanation of the production of medical masks. The article is accompanied by a guide to the selection of masks, as well as the resumption of work of domestic PP enterprises and the scheduling of medical and health materials. It is full of dry goods! The article is longer, it is recommended to read after collection. In addition, on February 2, Huang Libin, a spokesman for the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, also said: At present, the main shortage of materials in Wuhan is medical protective supplies such as medical protective suit and medical N95 mask. China has made every effort to promote the resumption of production in key enterprises. By February 1, the daily output of medical protective suit had reached 20,000 pieces, a significant increase compared with 8,700 pieces on January 28, and the production was basically used in Hubei. At present, China implements unified management and allocation of medical protective suit, and the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology is doing everything possible to implement the supply of goods, step up the organization of production and transportation, increase the conversion of international standards, expand international procurement for domestic use, and strive to ensure demand. In the face of the epidemic, in addition to medical and health enterprises such as masks and protective suit, PP enterprises in the plastic industry also resumed production during the holidays. Up to now, the number of PP enterprises in China has reached 14, and the number of medical and health materials scheduling enterprises has reached 31. (See the annex at the end of the article for the specific list, and the data is still being updated in real time.) What material is the N95 mask of an article published by Mr. Process last week? Which domestic chemical enterprises produce related raw materials? There is also a detailed explanation of the mask materials. Welcome to read. Expand the full text So, how are medical masks made? How to disinfect the factory? Let's take a look at a set of detailed graphic introductions. The following content comes from: MadeWithFun (ID: MadeWithFun), thanks to the original author's hard work. Let's take a look! At least three floors If you cut out the mask, you can see that there are at least three layers of non-woven fabrics, which are required by the production regulations, at least three layers. When we look at the inferior masks that have been exposed on the market, only one layer of non-woven fabric is used, which is the serious jerry-building of unscrupulous manufacturers.. What do you mean by "non-woven fabric"? "Non-woven fabrics" (also called "non-woven fabrics") are named for the process by which they are made. They are not woven. All kinds of clothes we often wear, such as cotton, linen and silk, are always woven into shape little by little on the machine. And the "non-woven fabric" is similar to the needling method we use to make felt. There is no knitting. It uses N needles to keep poking and poking,Medical Disposable Coverall, so that the cotton structure is tangled and solidified together, and then processed into such a flat layer of cloth. This is not a precious material either. Grandpa and grandma went to participate in a health activity for the elderly, and most of the "environmentally friendly bags" they got were made of "non-woven fabrics.". The middle filter layer of medical masks is made of melt-blown cloth, that is, PP (polypropylene) and other chip particles are heated and melted, pressurized and sprayed from small holes into very fine silk, sprayed onto the net curtain, and transported to the heated roller for hot pressing and shaping into cloth. The inner and outer layers are generally made of spunbonded cloth, which has similar cloth forming process and different functions of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity. The inner and outer layers can also be changed. The outer layer is lined with needled cloth to improve the thickness and hardness, but it can only block droplets, not viruses. The inner layer is changed to a softer ES hot-rolled cloth to improve comfort. Then why is there a shortage of masks after so many days? Because the market is in short supply.. As a disposable consumable More than one billion people across the country want to have a few people every day. All of a sudden, there is an explosive demand. In addition, the supply of raw materials is tight. The big manufacturing countries urgently resume work and rush to work day and night, but they can't supply for a while.. Merge three layers Such three layers of non-woven raw materials are stacked together through the production machine as shown in the figure below.
Have you noticed the small horn in the upper left corner of this machine? There is a string of wire through the bell mouth and keeps sending it in. Sew into the nose clip This depends on the second structure of the mask: the bendable metal wire on the upper part of the mask. When wearing, the nose clip should be pinched and fixed to the bridge of the nose, so that the mask can be worn tightly. Otherwise, without this structure, the air leakage of my flat nose is more serious, and the sealing is not tight, which affects the protective effect.. Let's take a look at a close-up, which is to match and convey the metal wire along one side of the non-woven fabric, and then roll the edge of the structure in the following picture, 3 Ply Disposable Protective Face Mask ,KN95 Face Mask with Five Layers, and then sew it up, and it's done. Stacked portion The main part of the mask is the layered structure shown in the picture below, which can be pulled open to completely cover the mouth and nose, and the big face is not afraid. The cross section of this laminated structure is so long that it needs a machine folding link. This is the mechanical design as shown in the figure below. There are three adjustable inclined planes, and a small bevel angle is set so that a large piece of non-woven fabric gradually narrows from left to right along these inclined planes to form a "folding structure.". Then there is a tabletting link to flatten the surface of the mask. Cutting link Most of the individual cutting and hemming of masks are fully automatic without manual processing. And different masks have slight manufacturing differences, some are sewn edges, some are directly hot-pressed and glued, small details. What comes out is a separate main body of the mask. It's not over yet. There are still several steps ahead. Complement edge pressing The picture below is the mask I bought. Pay attention to the edge of the mask. There is a non-woven fabric to reinforce and press the ear rope, so as not to tear it off. There are two large rolls of non-woven fabrics on the left and right, waiting to reinforce the edge of the mask. After one side is wrapped, it is immediately pressed flat and glued. At this time, the masks that had been cut out were linked together again. This is really the endless hatred since ancient times. So we still need a link to cut and reinforce the edge, and make a clean break.. Hot-press and fix the ear rope Adhesive is also needed on the edge of the mask. As shown in the picture below, the mechanical claw on this side sends the ear rope, and the adhesive on the other side fixes the ear rope on the mask. In this way, a flat mask is finished. After that, of course, we have to bring out our "manual quality inspection.". In the recent news of mask factories, we often see employees pulling ear ropes to test or tidy up masks. Some little cuties are worried about sterility. Don't worry, they have to be sent to disinfect and sterilize again. Open type mask Before disinfection, let's look at the production of an open mask, which is common in anti-smog mask or with higher protective specifications, such as the kind with a breathing valve. The feeding in the picture below is very clear. There are five rolls of non-woven fabric on the right, which shows that there are five layers of structure. The orange turntable is the metal wire at the nose clip. The most important structure of the open-type mask is shown in the picture below. A whole piece of flat fabric is folded together through this V-shaped structure, and then cut into a single one. Then the production of edge cutting, sewing, reinforcing and ear sealing lines are almost the same, so I won't repeat them. Disinfection and sterilization Speaking of non-woven fabrics, have you heard the old people complain that this kind of environmental protection bag is not strong, and it is easy to break if you use it several times? Fragile non-woven fabrics are generally not sterilized by high temperature, but by using ethylene oxide, a colorless gas, to kill bacteria, mold and fungi. After finding an animated demonstration, batches of masks were sent to the disinfection room, and then ethylene oxide gas was introduced (the yellow color in the picture below is for highlighting, in fact, it is colorless). After reaching a certain concentration, the disinfection process was completed. After that, air and nitrogen should be introduced into the disinfection room to dilute and remove ethylene oxide, and so on, until the residual amount of ethylene oxide on the surface of the mask reaches the standard. There are also medical bandages, sutures, surgical instruments and some items that are not resistant to high temperature disinfection, which can be disinfected with ethylene oxide. In addition, radiation disinfection is widely used in the disinfection of high-grade medical protective masks, which mainly uses the ability of ionizing radiation to kill pathogenic microorganisms to disinfect disposable medical supplies. It is superior to heating method and ethylene oxide chemical disinfection method, and is a very mature sterilization method in radiation processing.
The internationally accepted disinfectant dose is 25 kGy, and some countries tend to prescribe higher doses (e.g. 30 to 50 kGy). At present, in addition to the military industry, there are about thirty or forty such subsidiaries of China Nuclear Power Group and China Guangzhou Nuclear Power Group providing irradiation disinfection technology services, and all of them have been invested in this epidemic. Sanitary products such as masks after radiation sterilization are safer, and the radiation penetration is strong, the disinfection is uniform and thorough, and there is no harmful residue. (Thank you for your supplement. If you have any professional opinions, please tell me in the comment area.) During the epidemic period, we will teach you how to choose the right mask, not to over-protect, so that emergency supplies can play the greatest role. (Source: Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention) Appendix 1: Production and Work Resumption of PP Enterprises Pictures from Jin Lianchuang Appendix 2: Investigation on Production Scheduling of PP Fiber/Medical Materials Pictures from Jin Lianchuang On January 31, Sinopec announced that during the anti-epidemic period, the prices of medical and health materials and related raw materials produced by Sinopec will not rise. Meanwhile, Sinopec expects to continue to put 95000 tons of various medical and health raw materials into the market in February, an increase of 30000 tons over January. Subsequently, PetroChina made a statement: masks and other medical and health materials to produce more, fast production, to ensure first-line supply! In view of the shortage of medical materials such as medical masks, PetroChina's refining and chemical enterprises have increased the load of equipment and produced at full capacity to ensure the supply of raw materials for the production of medical materials. Other responsible enterprises have also tried their best to help fight against the "epidemic". In order to alleviate the shortage of raw materials in the market, they have made every effort to produce and guarantee supply. If downstream enterprises encounter difficulties in resuming work, they will actively cooperate, coordinate and make due contributions to the country and society. Disclaimer: This article only represents the author's personal views,Full Body Disposable Coverall, and has nothing to do with the petrochemical industry going out alliance. The authenticity, completeness and timeliness of this article and all or part of its contents are not guaranteed or promised by the petrochemical industry going out alliance. Readers are only for reference, and please verify the relevant contents by themselves. Source: Process Industries _ _ _ _ Return to Sohu to see more Responsible Editor:. zjyuan-group.com
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